My first article.

My first article to bareminimum magazine-

Yes, dear Londoner, you can grow your own stuff (and no I don’t mean weed).

 

 

Alright, maybe the title is kind of extreme, but if you’re reading this in the first place then I’m going to assume you are interested in self sustainability and want to learn the ins and outs of this wonderful practice, and trust me, its pretty darn awesome. Self-sustainability is anything and everything that you can do for yourself to alleviate the massive pressure we’re putting on our natural resources and surroundings. Planting your own chives is self-sustainable. (I bet you were thinking of the whole hippy I bathe in recycled almost poopy water sorta sustainability but no!).

 

Ah, the city life, never a dull moment. Always going here or there, either busy with work or going to the pub for some after work drinks or trying the latest timeout recommended, which is almost always as hugely anticlimactic as it is over crowded. Am I a hater? Lord no. I’ve lived in the concrete jungle for quite a while, and the benefits and undeniable, it’s freaking fun, but I’ve always felt like there is something missing.

Sometimes I go to the store and I look at everything pre-packaged and sealed in unnecessary amounts of plastic and it strongly reminds me of those kitchen sets for kids, where you had your little plastic apples, and wedges of cheese and even plastic bacon, and you pretended to cook it all together and served it to your parents who pretended to eat it for the 7th time that afternoon. Get what I mean? It feels so weirdly anti-natural, sometimes I genuinely forget where food comes from, I must confess most of the time I don’t even care. Do you know how a pineapple grows? A cucumber? Have you SEEN cucumbers in the plant? It’s mind-blowing.

 

Okay so I’m not going to tell you to ditch Tesco and find a whole foods or go to the local farmers market every time you need groceries because Jesus Christ can they get expensive… and pretentious too; but mainly expensive. We’ve all known the struggles of being a broke student with just about enough change to survive on pot noodles and pints (you’re kidding yourself if you claim you never spared coin for that); but what if I told you, you could make those MSG filled pots look and taste better AND make you feel weirdly fulfilled, make you feel like you’re adulting and your life isn’t falling apart by the second?

Ah yes, it’s possible and its also lazy person proof and no this is not a telemarketing advert.

 

The thing is, my dear city dwellers, we are thriving in an environment that is superimposed onto the tangible reality that surrounds us.

The lack of tangible, concrete and present achievement in our lives is decreasing quickly, and hold up before you get all worked up; I don’t mean getting promotions or degrees or getting a boyfriend. I mean those things that are small and insignificant, but that we can see, and taste, and smell, and that are there, with us, and not in a screen or carefully marketed to you as “Instagram worthy”.

 

Growing your own stuff requires very simple ingredients- some seeds, water, soil, and any area in your house, flat, apartment, warehouse, halls etc that has natural sunlight. That’s literally it. Well that and of course remembering to water them every once in a while, I’m so guilty of not doing this it’s almost unbelievable I’m telling anyone else to do it but seriously, the therapeutical benefits are endless and just set an alarm on your phone or something?

 

To begin with, seeing green in our living space is soothing, plants oxygenate the room and create a homely and calming environment, allowing your mind to restore its directive attention on tasks and therefore improving mental acuity. Also, watching a seed you planted literally grow into a beautiful pot of rosemary that you can use to season your chicken with makes you feel woke, like seriously woke. Next thing you know you’ll be doing Yoga next to your cherry tomato plant, that you named Paco. (Yes I would name a plant Paco, sue me).

 

Is this lady just promoting gardening? You might ask yourself, and the answer is kind of, but I think my outlook is cooler, and also not everyone can practice Eco therapy in his or her nice back yard in Hertfordshire. Some of us got a window sill, but if you can make it work, gold star for u.

To me, there’s nothing better than getting home after a grey rainy day, when my tutor shat on my project for the 5th time because it’s not researched enough but OH LOOK, Paco grew a new leaf. I’m not being sarcastic; I think it’s the closest thing to being a proud parent. This is a well-researched area food growing is great for your mental health and wellbeing.

 

Feeling fulfilled or satisfied in a permanent condition is hard to define, and it may not be directly tied to either physical or mental health. Contentment and happiness are extremely loose concepts and philosophy is not my forte, but it has been demonstrated that activities that contribute to self-sustainability are engaging and contribute towards promoting a greater sense of achievement. This guy called Wilson (1984) first put forward the idea that humans have a ‘tendency to focus on life and lifelike processes’ and that knowledge about the natural world (especially plants and animals) contributed to the survival of the human race and is thus innate. In practical terms this implies that people feel most comfortable in settings where they can identify with life processes (Gullone, 2000). It’s all about the positive emotional environment.. This in turn can aid with very well know and widespread mental health issues like depression, stress and even dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.

 

It’s simple, its cheap, it’s useful, its edible and it helps us to engage in one of the most ignored and taboos aspects of our humanity, the fact that our minds aren’t perfect. Do I need to say more? Oh yeah of course, it’s also good for the environment, helps with the reduction of redundant plastic use, its healthy, it engages you in culinary practice, have I already mentioned it’s cheap.

You know the drill my friends, get those window sills, balconies and back yards green and joyful, be self sustainable. get woke.

 

Okay so I’ve convinced you, amazing. So, now, how do you get started?

First and foremost lets remember plants eat sunlight like we eat carbs, so pick a spot with enough of it. Windowsills are ideal. Also lets not forget to pick the right container; 6 to 12 inches deep is ideal, herbs actually grow best in deeper containers (remember the chicken).

Pick quick maturing crops that you can grow in succession if you have a limited amount of space; we’re talking radishes, salad leaves, carrots or spinach. Water those babies and wait for the magic to happen. Urgh, so exciting.

 

I’m a big fan of Matthew Mcconaughey, and like he would say, alright alright alright. You’re all set, get those crops growing, get that green going.

Growing your own food.

So obviously, and as usual, I’m thinking massive scale and I’ve kinda forgotten to investigate something at a smaller scale to research the impacts of small change, but I stumbled upon an article that illuminated that path for me; growing your own food. So even as a city dweller, if you have a garden, a balcony or even a window sill, you can grow your own salad ingredients, spices and even fruits and vegetables. I’m aware that this trend is becoming more and more popular, yet it never occurred to me that it could be a small scale version of what I had in mind, which it is.

https://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/yes-you-can-grow-your-own-food-even-if-youre-a-city-dweller_uk_5b04121de4b0a046186fc5e6?vy7&guccounter=1&guce_referrer_us=aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuZmFjZWJvb2suY29tLw&guce_referrer_cs=DWJ7ykKAqrGe1OsGovsZPg

Staff at Harvard University in the US, which has its own community vegetable garden, attest to the advantages of growing your own: you can control the pesticides that come into contact with your food, vegetables which ripen naturally in your garden have more nutrients than those picked early for supermarkets and it encourages you to eat more fresh fruit and vegetables as they’re easier to access.

I mean, that’s a pretty straight forward answer for me, in terms of people observing the fruits of their own labour and getting gratification from it.

“Many people find the act of gardening therapeutic and a way to unwind from a stressful day,” she says. 

Yeah that’s damn right, that’s what I thought. I mean, Michelle Obama did it in the Whitehouse, you can’t get more aspirational than that. But in all seriousness,

“You will be amazed by how much fun gardening can be, and the pride you take in sharing healthy food nurtured by your own efforts,” says Acacia Matheson, the CHGE’s assistant director of communications. “We hope that people will develop more interest in learning about their food choices, and how to prepare fresh, healthy food at home.”

Be patient as you cultivate your relationship with your garden and the Earth. Before long, you’ll reap the benefits. You may even see a little tinge of green on those thumbs.

People in Harvard know what’s up. 

Side note- I just emailed  thebareminimummag@gmail.com, they’re looking for someone to write about self-sustainability, so what better way to spread the message of growing your own food than that way. I’m assuming this counts as an intervention, hopefully they get back to me soon.

 

Psychologist review and Scarlett Penn.

So I got in touch with a psychologist named Attilio Gardino, who commented on the project from a more psychological perspective, in terms of how efficient it could be. This is his response-

Dear Miss Estela Rodriguez,

Your poser is extremely interesting as complex, and if I understood well, I can summarise as “How to be happy, without having to be sheltered on the mountains of Tibet, but living in the routine?”. 

the gasp of the happiness is a motor which moves humans all long, to the point of finding as a right in the USA Constitution, even if that recognition never created any tangible outcomes.

Political, Religious and Scientific Thoughts are that aim, but we can notice that the outcomes aren’t particularly thrilling, they outline the complexity of the topic. 

When we talk about “Happiness” (I prefer the term “serenity”) we should distinguish between “exhibited happiness” and “lived happiness”. In the nowadays society ” of the spectacle” the exhibited happiness is the most common, however, the other one used as a status symbol ( for example permanent smile, physical vigor, excitement, economic status), the happiness or the serenity intimately lived is, for its nature, discreet and perceived in an intimate relationship with itself and with the other.

The happiness is one of the broad range of emotional states which any human can feel likewise as the anger, the fear, the sadness, the pain, etc. they are all important state, even some of them are uncomfortable, but they change in relation to the stimuli each people receive and they show the quality of them related to the sounding. That forms part of the big life process and his evolution and transformation through the time. 

Doesn’t exist any medicine: the universal treatment right for everyone. In general, the different therapies or techniques have in common the importance which gives to the awareness itself. 

The formalities that are used for reaching the purpose are different, but they can empirically be gathered in two seams: one sets great attention to the language, the other to the body, even if none of the two is able to exclude completely the other.

The method “Mindfulness” operates bringing the attention to the body and on the respiration, it is a revision, in actual key, of the ancient Buddhist meditative practice.

She asks me if it were effective… I think that can be, but it won’t produce miracles, it won’t act on the structure of the person, but as the autogenous training it could be able to give relief to the daily stress and therefore it could be a good beginning for a run of approach to if same.

Hope to answer all your question 

and I wish that can help you with the research

Attilio Gardino  

It was very interesting to see someone describe the different tiers of what happiness can be defined as, and it definitely brought a new concept to my project that I hadn’t thought of before- serenity, and also exhibited happiness versus lived happiness. I’m thankful for the response as I can narrow down my question even further to look at lived happiness, and stop using the umbrella term of exhibited happiness.

This was the email from Scarlett (general coordinator of WWOOF)-

Hi Estela,
I agree with everything you say and I definitely agree “people would obtain more fulfillment by seeing the physical fruits of their labour, as opposed to sitting in front of a desk every day.” Many times I’m told that WWOOFing has changed someone’s life, helped them see things in a different light. Anything we can do to help people reconnect I believe is valuable. At the moment we are in danger as we see ourselves as separate from the web of life, sitting like kings on top of the pyramid in a hierarchichal strucutre. We seem ignorant of the fact our ways of life are causing everything ‘below’ us in the pyramid to crumble and if it gets worse, being at the top, we have the furthest to fall.
So…is that all you wanted to know?
Scarlett
I obviously had a million more questions but I wont post those, I’ll just focus on the answer if I get one.
All this feedback is definitely helping me not only to refine this project to a very final question, but to actually set it in motion in real life.
My question thus far has been- How can self-sustainable spaces help individuals re-evaluate their sense of success in the professional environment?
My revised question is- How can self-sustainability be used as an alternative tool to aid individuals in re-evaluating their idea of professional success in a limited timeframe?
BOOM. YEAH, THAT’S RIGHT.

 

Cara Courage and placemaking.

Yesterday i attended a talk given by Cara Courage, head of the Tate Exchange on placemaking. The way I understood it was a form of gentrification trying to incorporate the soul and essence of a certain place, to preserve identity yet give the locals of an area amenities and facilities that they might be lacking. I found it quite interesting and although it wasn’t directly associated with my field of research, I had a very nice conversation with her afterwards, where she took my email and promised to send me a reading list on environmental psychology, as well as recommending I look Jonathan Chapman as an artist that could compliment my research. She also took my email so hopefully I’ll stay in touch with her, as she said it would be lovely to have environmentalism as part of Tate Exchange 2019.

Curiously, there was a CSM fine arts graduate at this talk as well, who I had a wonderful conversation with as well. She has a studio in tower bridge and she does drawing performance, which is honestly insane. I’m trying to figure out how I could use this as a tool of awareness, I will go visit her as soon as we’re both back from Tenerife.

https://www.mlohrum.com/

Circle 2Smashd Bouquet

The sun bed wars and the obsolescence of the concept of holidays.

https://www.channel4.com/programmes/holidays-from-hell-caught-on-camera

There is such a thing as sun bed wars. Seriously, look it up. Sun bed wars. Looks a lot like rush hour to me, a hell of a lot like rush hour. Isn’t the point of going away on holidays to relax, disconnect from the constant urgency and precipitation of the daily grind? Watching a video like this seems almost laughable.

Data has revealed that British citizens are the most depressed people in the Western World, having more than double depression sufferers than people in Greece or Italy.

The overall number of people with mental health problems has not changed significantly in recent years, but worries about things like money, jobs and benefits can make it harder for people to cope. 

It appears that how people cope with mental health problems is getting worse as the number of people who self-harm or have suicidal thoughts is increasing. (Taken from the NHS National Archives).

I recently did a survey and posted it on my social media to find out he reasoning behind people staying in a city like London, and how many times they wished to escape it. A total of 57 people took my survey and these are the results-

The results of the survey primarily reveal that job opportunity and lifestyle are the main attractions of London for those who took the survey. I was surprised to learn that 42.11% of the group was planning on staying in London for 5 years or more, but the other responses seem to match my presumptions of what people like and dislike from the city.

An astonishing 39.28% of people dislike the living costs of the city the most, yet 47.37% of surveyees chose to go on holiday between twice and thrice a year. Correlation need not mean causation by any means, yet these results seem to demonstrate quite the pattern in my eyes. The job opportunities and lifestyle that attract people to the city also seem to be the factors that drain the most, as people seem to struggle to keep up with the costs of a decent living and all the activities that are enjoyable, yet costly. The wish to escape between 2 to 3 times a year, despite the monetary implications is an indicator of the burnout culture I have described in my previous posts.

The fact that almost half of the people are willing to stay in London for the next 5 years or more was unexpected in one sense, but expected in another, as it is hard to simply drop all responsibilities and move away for a while, or for a longer while. This is where my project begins to really get grounded, as I feel it provides with an alternative to having to drop everything, or having to change your lifestyle.

Whilst doing my research, I came across the Buddhist peace fellowship, which had a similar principle to the one I was proposing, so I decided to investigate further just to be sure I wasn’t just copying something that clearly existed before.

Vision

Aware of the interconnectedness of all things, the Buddhist Peace Fellowship cultivates conditions for peace, social justice, and environmental sustainability within our selves, our communities, and the world.

Upon reading this, I kind of panicked slightly as I am willing to promote exactly these values, HOWEVER-

Mission

The mission of the Buddhist Peace Fellowship (BPF), founded in 1978, is to serve as a catalyst for socially engaged Buddhism. Our purpose is to help beings liberate themselves from the suffering that manifests in individuals, relationships, institutions, and social systems. BPF’s programs, publications, and practice groups link Buddhist teachings of wisdom and compassion with progressive social change.

I think this is what sets me aside. I don’t wish to create a practice, or a system of belief, or any kind of lifestyle for that matter. I don’t even wish to educate per say, although it would be a by-product (hopefully). The mission of Reset is to give space, air, and to slow time down, and everyone experiencing it can draw their own damn conclusions from it. If someone realized after experiencing it that their job of lifestyle isn’t their problem, but something else and they wish to carry on being dicks to the environment and doing coke every weekend or whatever, that isn’t a failure, because the purpose of the program was fulfilled.

The dispossession of lives.

 

La falta de tiempo, una nueva pobreza

BARCELONA

27/05/2018 02:19

La gente vive como una culpa personal el hecho de no hacer nada durante los ratos libres. En las ciudades se camina, se habla más rápido. Parece que hay que salir de casa con un objetivo, que cada minuto es imprescindible para no perder el autobús, para llegar antes… La aceleración, explica, impacta en la calidad de vida de la sociedad, nadie se para a ayudar a nadie.

People live with a personal guilt in the matter of doing nothing in their spare time. In cities you walk, you talk faster. It seems as though you always leave your  home with a specific objective, that every single minute is essential to not miss the bus, to get there sooner… The acceleration impacts the quality of life of society, no-one ever stops to help someone else.

 

El objetivo es que la ciudadanía sea crítica ante un sistema que quiere desposeerles de su vida

The objective is that citizenship becomes critical in a system that wants to dispossess people from their own lives. 

*Speaking of an app designed for women to make other female friends, playground magazine*

El objetivo de la app es que puedas conectarse fácilmente con colegas a fin a tus intereses. “No es que no tengamos amigas, es solo que todas estamos muy ocupadas todo el tiempo, necesitamos optimizar el tiempo que tenemos”, ha dicho una de las creadoras.

The objective of the app is that you can easily connect with colleagues with similar interests to your own. “Its not that we don’t have friends, it’s just that we are all so busy all the time, we need to optimize the time we have”- said one of the creators.

I mean first of all what the fuck.

Personal and Planetary Well-being: Mindfulness Meditation, Pro-environmental Behavior and Personal Quality of Life in a Survey from the Social Justice and Ecological Sustainability Movement.

  • Jeffrey Jacob
  • Emily Jovic
  • Merlin B. Brinkerhoff 

In summary, the BPF sample is composed of moderately affluent, middle-aged respondents who are sympathetic to activist causes and relatively virtuous in their practice of ESB. Spirituality is also a defining characteristic of the respondents, with nearly four out of five (79.5%) practicing meditation at least once each week. How, and to what extent, their spirituality, in the form of MM, supports (is correlated with) day-to-day sustainability practices, and SWB, is the subject in the “Findings” section of the article, following a discussion of measurement strategies.

Recycling behavior has a particularly weak, practically non-existent, relationship with MM (0.007). This is perhaps because recycling is becoming a kind of institutionalized behavior that does not need to rely on a motivational source similar to MM. Overall, Table 3’s zero-order correlations lend support to the study’s hypothesized model (Fig. 1). Both the ESB and MM scales have moderate to moderately strong associations with SWB-SD and GH. And there are also statistically significant correlations between two of the three ESB scales and MM.

Pro-environmental behavior (measured as Sustainable Food Practice) explains a statistically significant amount of variance in SWB

The innovative dimension of the findings reported here comes by way of the connection between planetary and personal well-being, in terms of inter-relationships among environmentally responsible behavior, formal meditation and SWB. The distinction between spontaneously occurring mindfulness and that cultivated by formal meditation (MM) may appear overly subtle at first inspection; nevertheless, there are two important implications. First, the indicators for mindfulness detached from formal meditation need to be sufficiently general in order to connect them to the day-to-day experiences of typical respondents.

The second implication of the distinction between cultivated versus spontaneous mindfulness is that naturally occurring mindfulness does not appear to be goal oriented.

Conversely, material accumulation as a primary object of one’s life energy has not led to either personal or societal welfare (Kasser 2002; Kasser and Kanner 2004; Roberts and Clement 2007). At the same time, taking advantage of spiritual/religious belief and social support systems, of which MM is one manifestation, is consistently related to individual life satisfaction (Ellison 1991; Myers 2000; Barakan and Greenwood 2003; Watts et al. 2006).

 

Reset.

Based on the question I posed, this is my idea. It’s called Reset.

I am exploring the impacts of big metropolis in the lives of those who live in them. I have observed that there is a constructed, artificial perception of success that leads to a cat and mouse game. People in cities such as London work jobs they may not necessarily enjoy for hours on end just to be able to afford a slightly more expensive pub, and a slightly more instagramable brunch on Sunday mornings. There is a total de-connection between the lives that we live and the lives that we wish we lived, and amidst all of this, we age, we rack up debt and we become ill.

It isn’t easy for everyone to just simply change their career choice or their job. Bills don’t pay themselves and responsibilities don’t just disappear. Practicing mindfulness is fantastic but sometimes that alone isn’t enough, and just leaving everything behind to start again is sometimes just not an option for some.

Currently, I’m aiming to create a organization that I’ve named Reset. The aim of it will be to create an atemporal bubble where people can go for short periods of time, between 2 weeks and a month, with the aim of re-evaluating themselves, their lives, their choices, their jobs and their professional pathways, without having to book a flight to Nepal and becoming a buddhist monk. It will be a self sustainable space, a small community of people looking to find the same answers. The best way I can illustrate this point is by using the example of- if you stick a banker in an environment where banks don’t exist, they will stop worrying about their daily grind, and will have to focus on the real things around them. I want to connect people to themselves, but in a timeframe that allows them to go back to their normal lives (if they wish to).

I also believe that these communities being self sustainable create awareness of what self sustainability is, and how it can easily be achievable.

This is an extract of an email I sent to a professional psychologist, in order to gain some insights on the psychological impacts of this sort of idea. I asked him these questions-

Would just like a professional opinion on mindfulness, do you think it really works? Is it a good idea to cut off people from their lives, almost as a form of shock therapy, to release them from their trap? How could I offer psychological help in this environment? Do you think the wellbeing of someone’s mind is in any way connected to their surroundings? To nature? Do you have any experiences with people that have become stuck in a job that they don’t like, or that they’ve realized they essentially hate their lives? Is there a therapeutical remedy for chronic unhappiness? 

I think it would be useful to really consolidate what sort of help I could offer, since sticking people in a gated community like pigs in a pen isn’t exactly useful, or very well thought out for that matter.

I want to reiterate that this isn’t some sort of spiritual retreat, or a retreat at all for that matter. I don’t mean to cut people off from their lives with any purpose, at all. The aim of this whole project is to reset. Reset themselves, like having a cold shower, it doesn’t necessarily have to change anything, people can go back to doing what they did before, just with a refreshened perspective, or they can radically change their lives, that is entirely up to them.

I’m giving the survey a few more days before I close it, I want to get as many answers as possible. So far, 43 people have taken it, if I reached 50 that would be fantastic. The results of the survey, I’m hoping back my theory that people don’t need to want to change their environment i.e where they live, in order to want to change their perspective.

My main aim isn’t environmental, but environmentalism is a huge part of my research, as I genuinely believe (and also backed by evidence), that taking care of our surroundings creates a sense of fulfillment that can’t be equated by any other sort of activity. I still have to find more facts to back this, but we’re on the right track!

The game.

So the idea I’ve been developing is great, but Claudia made me ask myself a better question; well, actually, she asked me a better question. She asked me what other incentives were there, and that really got me thinking.

Why not turn this whole thing into a massive, immersive game. When I was little I used to play this third person game called Age of Mythology. To say I was obsessed with it is an understatement, I genuinely loved it. The content and story line of the game were actually super simple, you had to create a civilization from scratch, and then defeat your enemies. I didn’t care so much for the enemies part, but more about the development of my little clan, how I could make improvements to the buildings, collect wood and harvest food faster etc.

I thought, why not take that principle and apply it to the real world. Why not create an atemporal bubble, self sustainable of course, where people can come, for a short amount of time (say like 2 weeks) and completely reset themselves. It’s like going back 500 years, where whatever might be plaguing the mind of a banker has no importance whatsoever. It is an incentive to find oneself in an environment where the only pressures reside on surviving (assisted of course, this won’t be a survivalist camp).

I feel like this needs a lot of refinement, but I genuinely see a future with it. It reminds me of these enterprise retreats, except I wont be doing what they do, aka trust exercises or therapy (I do have to do some research on what they actually do), but more of a holistic, personal and professional reset, a chance to genuinely take a break.

Employing data from a mailed survey of a sample of ecologically and spiritually aware respondents (N = 829), the study tests the hypothesized relationship between ecologically sustainable behavior (ESB) and subjective well-being (SWB). The proposed link between ESB and SWB is the spiritual practice of mindfulness meditation (MM). In multiple regression equations ESB and MM independently explain statistically significant amounts of variance in SWB, indicating, for at least the study’s sample, that there can be a relationship between personal and planetary well-being. The inter-relationships among SWB, ESB and MM suggest that for specific segments of the general population (e.g., the spiritually inclined) there may not necessarily be an insurmountable conflict between an environmentally responsible lifestyle and personal quality of life. The research reported here also points to the potential for meditative/mindful experiences to play a prominent role in the explanation of variance in SWB, a direction in QoL studies recently highlighted by several researchers (Layard 2005, pp. 189–192; Nettle 2005, pp. 153–160; Haidt 2006).

Consequently, when one’s behavior matches one’s ideals, particularly in relationship to as an emotionally charged project as planetary survival, one is likely to experience a sense of fulfillment reflected in SWB (Jacob and Brinkerhoff 19971999)

Consequently, meditators believe that consistent mindfulness awareness practice permits them to see their attachments, and rather than being carried away by the impulse to cling to things that have little probability of offering long-term satisfaction, they possess the presence of mind to make decisions less likely to leave them with regret. This is particularly important in light of the research that indicates people generally have difficulty making the choices that lead to SWB (Gilbert 2006; Loewenstein and Schkade 1999).